WE analyse the effect of gravity on the frequency of incident solar quantum/waves upon the surface, and on the quantum/waves emitted by the surface and the atmosphere. This analysis shows that the IR quantum/waves emitted from the surface towards the atmosphere and the isotropic IR quantum/waves radiated by atmosphere lose energy by the effect of gravity, enough as to contradict a supposed “greenhouse effect” in the atmosphere by exaggerated thermal properties of the “greenhouse gases”.
The theory dealing with the effect of gravity on quantum/waves radiation was proposed by Albert Einstein in 1905 [1, 2]. This theory was followed by the release of Einstein’s concepts and calculations on induced negative absorption .
So the effect of pressure on EM quantum waves as the induced negative absorption have been verified empirically  and have been applied to high tech laboratory devices (lasers, cyclotrons, plasma chambers, etc.), as for domestic technologies (microwave ovens), most of them patented by engineers.
Mass is associated with matter, although energy also possesses effective inertial mass. Is it possible to think about mass without associating it with matter? Yes, it is possible. To do this, we have to stop associating mass with matter, i.e. all matter possesses mass; however, mass is not only related to matter.
Electromagnetic energy has effective inertial mass. The same is true for internal energy that is determined by the absorbed electromagnetic energy. Unquestionably, we can apply the same concept to kinetic energy and potential energy.
Remember that, although the units to express mass are the same units that we use for weight, mass is not weight or vice-versa.
We do know the definition of matter is incomplete and inadequate; nevertheless, our poor definition of matter yet is useful on defining weight.
Weight is the attraction force exerted on a body by effect of gravity. For example, a rock on the Earth’s surface is attracted by means of the gravitational force exerted by the Earth on the rock and it depends on the Earth’s mass and the mass of the rock. Such force is what we know as weight. If we take the same rock and place it on the surface of the Moon, the mass of the rock does not change, but its weight decreases because the gravitational force on the Moon exerted on the matter placed on its surface is lower than that on Earth.
On the other hand, mass is the amount of concentrated energy in a given region of space . This definition of mass relates energy with matter because matter actually is condensed energy, and mass and energy are properties of matter. 
Therefore, energy has effective inertial mass and its equivalent in gravitational mass . IR quantum/waves have gravitational mass which is equivalent to their effective inertial mass.
The effective inertial mass of a single quantum/wave is analogous to (hf)/c^2; hence, we apply this formula to calculate the gravitational mass of quantum/waves, which is written in the following form:
Where g is the gravity acceleration 9.8 cm/s^2, H is height (for the Earth’s troposphere, the average is 7.7 x 10^5 cm), and c^2 is the speed of light raised to the second power.
The formula to calculate the fraction of frequency change is as follows:
Δf/f = (gH)/c^2 
Where Δf is the change of the quantum/wave frequency due to gravity, f is the instantaneous frequency of the quantum/wave, g is the gravitational acceleration = 9.8 m/s^2, H is altitude and c^2 is the speed of light raised to the second power.
Up to an altitude of 770000 cm, the average altitude of the Earth’s troposphere, the fraction of frequency of the IR quantum/waves radiated from the ground and outgoing to the space, with a frequency of 4.3 × 1014 Hz, is:
Δf/f = (gH)/c^2
Δf/4.3 × 1014 Hz = (980 cm/s^2 * 770000 cm)/ (2.99792458 x 10^10 cm/s)^2 = 8.396 x 10^(-13)
And the displacement of the frequency Δf is:
Δf = 4.3 × 1014 Hz * (8.396 x 10^(-13)) = 361.03 Hz
Notice that the change of frequency is very low; however, it has a significant effect on energy density and wavelength.
For the circumstances of visible light, Δf is:
Δf = 7.9 x 10^14 Hz [(9.8 x 10^2 (cm/s^2)*(770000 cm))/(2.99792458 x 10^10 (cm/s))^2] =
= 7.9 x 10^14 Hz [(7.546 x 10^8 (cm^2/s^2)/(8.987551 x 10^20 (cm^2/s^2))] = 663.3 Hz
Consequently, the power of an IR quantum/wave emitted from the ground towards the atmosphere is lower at a height of 7.7 km than at the boundary layer surface-atmosphere. In other words, the energy density of the quantum/wave is lower at higher altitudes than at the surface level in the finite moment that the quantum/wave is emitted  (U = a *T^4). Therefore, the air immediately above the surface is warmed further than the air at higher heights.
The same observable fact occurs to quantum/waves that are emitted by the air. Considering the frequency of IR quantum/waves emitted towards the space by the air layer immediately above the surface, we obtain a change of frequency of 4.61 Hz.
The resistance to the onward movement of quantum/waves exerted by the Earth’s gravity causes a reduction of the frequency if the radiation is emitted toward minor altitudes. For example, the change of frequency of a quantum/wave emitted by the surface towards the upper limit of 10 meters, above the ground, is 0.86 Hz.
Nevertheless, the frequency of quantum/waves decrease as it goes farther away from the emitter; for example, at 7.7 km of altitude, the change of quantum/wave frequency is 663.3 Hz, and the final frequency ff is:
ff = 7.9 x 10^14 Hz – 663.3 Hz = 7.89 x 10^14 Hz
From here, we conclude that the IR quantum/wave’s redshift due to the gravitational force of Earth is quite evident.
Notice that the change of frequency is linear while the resulting frequency is a continuous non-linear curve (a polynomial function). As the IR Quantum/Waves travel towards the space, their Frequency decreases; consequently, the energy density in IR Quantum/Waves also decreases.
Graph 2 depicts the energy density of IR Quantum/Waves as they travel from the surface towards the outer space, although the plot only represents 7.7 km of altitude from the total altitude of Earth’s troposphere.
I have added linear trend lines to both curves to provide evidence of the non-linear trend in both properties of IR quantum/waves. The energy density of the quantum/waves magnitudes is proportional to the final frequency; specifically, to a higher frequency, a higher energy density; to a lower frequency, a lower energy density. This requires the application of thermodynamics of non-linear systems, specifically, quantum thermodynamics, i.e. the procedures I have been applying on these calculations.
Therefore, the formula to calculate the final frequency f’ is:
f’/cm = f (1-(gH/rc^2))
Where f’ is the resulting frequency, f is is the initial frequency, and r is the Earth’s troposphere’s radius. For example, for an initial frequency of 7.9 x 10^14 Hz, the red shift is at the resulting frequency of 7.89 x 10^14 Hz/cm:
And, by isolating the variable f’ we obtain:
f’ = (cm) * 7.89 x 10^14 Hz/cm = 7.89 x 10^14 Hz
Given that wavelength is inversely proportional to frequency -i.e. the higher the frequencies, the lower the wavelengths and vice versa, for systems emitting IR quantum/waves of a frequency equal to 2.998 x 10^13 Hz and a wavelength λ = 1.0 x 10^4 nm, we obtain a wavelength displacement Δλ (redshift) of:
Δλ = 8.396 x 10^(-13) x 0.001 cm = 8.396 x 10^(-9) nm.
And the resulting wavelength λ is 0.000999 cm.
Therefore, the energy density of a quantum/wave decreases as its wavelength is lengthened. The longer the wavelength is, the lower the energy density is.
As Δf decreases, Δλ increases. As Δf increases and Δλ decreases, the energy density of the IR quantum/wave increases.
The correlation between the frequency of IR quantum/waves radiated from the surface being affected by the Earth’s gravity and the energy density of those IR quantum/waves demonstrates that gravity exerts an important effect on the warming of the troposphere.
The results indicate that the energy density of the IR quantum/waves near the surface increases as the frequency of the quantum/waves increases. Due to the effect of the gravity on the frequency of quantum/waves, the wavelength is also inversely affected with respect to the frequency fraction generating a shift towards the red spectrum, which means a decrease of the energy density of the quantum/waves.
This is the most plausible explanation to the adiabatic effect observed in the Earth’s atmosphere and evidence against any influence of the carbon dioxide on the Earth’s temperature.
The low total emissivity of the carbon dioxide (0.002), the induced negative absorption that determines the directionality of emissions from the carbon dioxide towards the outer space, the radiation pressure that always is higher in emissions from the surface than in emissions from the atmosphere, and the effect of gravity on the frequency and wavelength of the IR quantum/wave radiation, are clear evidence that the “greenhouse effect” caused by “greenhouse gases” is not real, and that the warming of the Earth obeys to the load and characteristics of the energy that the Earth receives from the Sun.
After evaluating the effect of gravity on photons, three basic questions arise:
- Is the gravity field a sink to heat?
- Does gravity field donate energy to photons?
- Do photons donate energy to the gravity field?
In cosmology and astrophysics, the three questions have a single positive answer. This is because, in modern cosmological theories, all the arguments concerning to the energy are handled as fields; for example, Higgs’ fields, Electromagnetic field and gravity field. This way, a cosmologist does not have any problem on attributing to the gravitons the capacity of absorbing and emitting energy that no longer can be used as work. Universe’s energy-in-transit ends by being absorbed by the gravity field.
Nasif S. Nahle is Director of the Scientific Research Division at Biology Cabinet Mexico.
- Zee, A. Einstein’s Universe; Gravity at Work and Play. 1989. Oxford University Press. New York, NY.
- Serway, Raymond A., Moses, Clement J., Moyer, Curt A. Modern Physics-3rd Edition. Brooks Cole. 2005.
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